Month: April 2018

Introduction to Silicon Wafers used in Electronics

Silicon wafers are actually semiconductor devices that are heavily used in todays electronics. To some, these micro devices may seem dismissible but they really have important uses in technology. Silicon wafers are primarily used in manufacturing computer chips. Every electronic device that you enjoy these days contains these tiny yet very significant wafers.

Generally, silicon is a good conductor of electricity. If you have it altered, not only will it conduct electricity, you can also make good use of it as an effective insulator. Whats amazing about these sophisticated wafers is that manufacturers only use regular beach sand particles as the main ingredient in the manufacturing process. Everyone knows that sand also acts as a lightning conductor, and the same technology is also utilized in both computer and electronic circuit boards.

The sand used in the wafer manufacturing process is being closely monitored. It must be kept clean at all times, free from any debris. Whenever the manufacturing process is contaminated due to foreign material inclusion, wafers with faulty connections are created. These bad wafers are costly mistakes, thus the manufacturing of silicon wafers must take place in a strictly regulated environment. It must be handled with extreme care by professional and experienced technicians.

Technically, the device can be described as a thin, circular disc mainly used in the semiconductor and integrated circuit manufacturing. There are also other recognized types in the industry like the Gallium Arsenide or the SOI, which is basically silicon on insulator. These are also utilized in electronics, requiring a careful and thorough manufacturing for efficient end products.

Specialized companies that operate a MEMS foundry create these devices. During the manufacturing process of the thin film, the wafers produced can come in various sizes and desired specifications. The composition can include so many components before the fabrication is completed. After this, the finished product is then packaged carefully for distribution.

A special compound is used to clean the finished product. It guarantees consistency so it will not be altered in any way. The cleaner material used is some weak acid adequate enough to remove impurities of any kind. It also takes care of the various issues within the sawing process.

The various sizes in the finished products make up for the different applications, though they are generally determined based on the components mechanical strengths. And even though the sizes vary, these wafers are manufactured in between 100 mm. to about 300 mm. in diameter. These parts and pieces vary in their costs and dependent of course on the size and usage.

The machinery involved in the manufacturing and cutting of these parts can cost a fortune, or likely that of a small factory. Manufacturing and perfecting such small but vital electronic components costs a great deal. There is no other way of going around the process just to save on the manufacturing costs at the least.

All these tiny yet important pieces are integrated in various electronic applications all over the world today. Computer systems are among the obvious benefactors, including mobile phone technology and digital appliances. There is a clear revolution in the world of electronics and silicon wafers are at the forefront, continuously doing wonders for this electronics-dependent world.

The Development Of The Electric Bass Guitar

Although the concept of a bass guitar was first developed in the 1930s, it wasn’t until the 1950s that mass production met with popularity and the concept of an electric bass guitar became mainstream. Once the idea of an electric bass guitar took hold, and was used widely in groups and bands performing across the world, many companies began developing new styles and methods to create some fantastic ideas for the instrument, and help its popularity grow. Today the electric bass guitar has stepped forwards from the dark shadows of the back of the stage to take a much more prominent position at the front – and has become known as a very popular and stylish instrument to play. Not forgetting, of course, that the quality of sound and versatility have come a long way too.

Since it took about twenty years for the idea of an electric bass guitar to become a mainstream popular idea, it is unsurprising perhaps that it took another twenty years for the next big jump in design and innovation. It was in the 1970s that the company known as Music Man was founded by Leo Fender. It was this company that designed and created the StingRay, which was the first bass guitar to include active electronics. Although these active electronics can sound quite complex, the simple effect was to increase the range of high and low notes, and enhance the crispness of each.

In the early seventies a company called Alembic created the basic design for the high end bass guitars, known as boutique guitars. These were crafted using the highest degree of expertise, with the most highly skilled craftsmen using the finest quality materials. With unique, custom designs, the most premium woods available and some of the most innovative electronic gadgetry included, these boutique bass guitars became well known as the top guitar to have – and brought bass guitars from the back of the stage to the very front – an equal to the standard electric guitar.

Over the next thirty years the designs of electric bass guitars have varied, with new innovations, odd and unusual features and designs, including a headless bass by Ned Steinberger, who also introduced the Trans-Trem tremolo bar. A few years later the Guild Guitar Corporation introduced the astonishing fretless bass, known as the Ashbory. Quite how a guitar would work without frets would challenge any sane thinker – but the Ashbory used silicone rubber strings, with a piezoelectric pickup. The result of this was a sound more like a double bass than an electric guitar.

It was in the nineties that five string basses became popular, and prices began to reduce quite significantly, seeing pre-amplifiers built in to most bass guitars – previously something reserved for the higher end guitar. Today we see electric bass guitars include digital modelling circuits actually built in to the guitar – almost like having a computer built in to the body of the guitar, and able to enhance, distort, amplify and altar the voice of the guitar in such a way that it is possible to program the guitar to sound like any of the well known types of guitar available previously.

Do Snake Repellers Work

The burning question most people have is. Do snake repellers work?
There are many people who will post that they don’t work, some say they do and youtube has a lot of posts about the pro’s and con’s. The thing I have noticed is that most of the derogatory comments seem to come from snake catchers.
So the only thing to do is to find out as much as possible about these things.

In house test.
The best thing to do is to try it. So when I found a snake in the front garden, I placed one of these electronic snake repellers in the middle of the garden which was about 6 metres across.

The snake was living in a rotted tree stump in the middle of the garden bed.

To make this as close to a test environment as possible, I observed the snakes movements over a 7 day period and would see it out sunbathing and hunting for food. It was a red bellied black snake.

On the afternoon of the 8th day I placed the Sentinel Solar snake repeller in the garden.
The next morning when I went to see the snake sunbathing in its usual spot there was no snake. I checked at the other times when I had seen the snake and sure enough, No Snake.

In this case there seems to be evidence that the snake has been repelled from the area and deterred from returning.
Interestingly, some 6 months later I saw a snake very similar to the other one in another part of the yard about 20 metres from where it was sighted last time. So far I haven’t been able to determine whether or not it’s living permanently in this area.

Other examples of people having success with snake repellers are, this one from the permaculture living forum

19-12-2010, 09:19 PM
Hello readers, with much skepticism, three years ago we took a chance and brought 5 solar snake repellers for our 2 acres in central tasmania (we had nicked named it, snake central) three years on and to this day we still hasn’t seen another brown since, believe what you want i say they work and i never fear about sending the grandkids out the back to play anymore.

Are Refurbished Or Recertified Electronics Safe To Buy

The term “refurbished” typically refers to electronics that have been spoiled and returned, then repaired and re-sold by the maker. But the definition is actually broader than that. Refurbish may never have been damaged to begin with. Some are simple returns and interactions. Some refurbished electronics are ready with new cases and batteries, so they externally resemble their new counterparts. It varies by vendor and manufacturer, so be sure to check out the detailed policies before you buy.

Another word may comes in mind is “re-certified.” This usually means that the electronics equipments have been returned or repaired, then tested and settled some kind of guarantee. However, all refurbished products have to be experienced before they can be sold, too. Also, some refurbish have brilliant warranties, while some re-certified products have terrible ones. In general, “recertified” and “refurbished” can be used interchangeably. What matters most is that the creation in question has a good warranty.
This means that they can’t be measured an “investment,” because they lose value over time. To take the car example further, most cars lose 25% to 40% of their value within the first two years. However, a two-year-old car will have lost almost none of its utility. This is why it’s best to let someone else buy new, pay that 40% extra, then sell to you. The same logic applies to laptops and other classy electronics. Very few of us need the latest, most powerful components, and those of us who do can usually stand to want the few weeks or months it takes for the first refurbished models to show up.

But we should be careful about buying electronics used. Laptops don’t have the same lifetime as cars. Refurbished is an improved choice, because of that all-important contract I keep talking about. In general, you should look for a warranty of at least a month or two, to make sure the product doesn’t have any clear defects. Preferably, the warranty should expand beyond that. To once again use Apple as an example, their refurbish come with the same one-year warranty as their new products yet another cause to buy refurbished.
Huge deals can be found in refurbished or recertified stuff. But, you need to make sure that the item will robust your needs. Make sure to study in and do some research on both the item you are thinking of purchasing and the seller. A trustworthy seller will offer a return if the item does not work when you receive it and most times offer some sort of short term warranty. So, don’t be afraid of the words refurbished or recertified on items. They can be a great deal, a super deal, and save you lots of money if you research properly.
A good tip if you’re thinking about buying a refurbished or recertified item is to ask if it comes with a warranty. Not all manufacturers offer this, but you should ask, and if they do, ask how long the warranty lasts. At the end of the day refurbished or recertified products can be good, you can get great bargains on items that may have little, or no defects. If it wasn’t for manufacturer’s refurbishing or recertifying their products, they would all end up on the trash heap. Buying these products is kind of like buying a recycled product, it is a good idea, and can become a speculation in the long run.
Electro computer warehouse provides features of used computer sales and sale computers in cheap prices. We are doing business in used computers, refurbished computers, computer accessories etc at [].

Why Is Bluetooth Needed

One of the most outstanding features in information age is the convenient and fast dissemination of information. Under this circumstance, technicians are working hard to develop a more excellent method to spread information.
Bluetooth is more than a single technology for mobile phones or even the entire IT industry, but also an advanced concept. The whole world startled the moment the Bluetooth union promises us a bright future. Cast aside the shackles of the traditional connection, enjoy the unrestrained fun thoroughly, Bluetooth `s promise do cheer us up.
Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks. It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
From the above definition of Bluetooth we get a brief understanding of what Bluetooth is. We also know that Bluetooth is widely used in lots of devices, such as computer, mobile phone, or even game accessories.
When you pay a visit to a consumer electronics online store, you will find out that a large amount of electronics gadgets are advertised with Bluetooth which attract consumers attention immediately. Why Bluetooth is is so well-received that almost everyone wants own a device at least with a Bluetooth technology?
Four aspects are account for our doubts.
1, global

Bluetooth wireless technology is free for all member companies around the world which means we have no need to pay extra fee for it. Manufacturers in many fields apply Bluetooth in their products to reduce the use of messy wires, realize wireless connection, stream stereo and transmit data. And, Bluetooth in mobiles phones set a successful example for the world industry.
2, wide range

Bluetooth technology is applied unprecedented in a wide range from mobile phones, cars devices to computer accessories. and the users are varied from common consumer, industrial market to the enterprise and so on. Its advantages including low power consumption, small size and low-cost price enables Bluetooth applied even to the tiniest devices.
3, usage

As an instant technology, Bluetooth is easy to install and set up without the necessity of a fixed facility, so does the non-cable connection.
4, universal specifications

Bluetooth wireless technology is no doubt the hottest one for its wide range and multifunction as well as secure wireless standard. Its universal specifications restrict all their products correspond to the standard.

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