The curvature of earth produces two effects firstly it reduces the difference in the path lengths between the direct and ground reflected waves by raising the point of reflection above that of a plane earth and as a result tends to reduce the strength of the received field, secondly curvature of the earth causes the reflection at the ground to take place from a spherical rather than a flat surface so that the reflected ray becomes divergent and consequently becomes weaker at the receiving point. This tends to increase the field strength of the total space wave at the receiving point. These two opposite effects produced by the earths curvature almost neutralize each other. As a consequence, the assumption of a plane earth yields results which remain valid in spite of considerable curvature of earth. The condition in the troposphere keeps on changing with time. Hence the amount of bending of refraction of waves also changes from time to time. This influences the relative path length of the direct and the ground reflected components of space wave. Hence the field strength of the resultant space wave at the receiving point changes, i.e. fading of the wave results. Small but abrupt discontinuities in the dielectric constant of air existing at the boundaries of air masses of widely different characteristics result in mirror like reflections. Such reflections may cause signal to be received at the points beyond the line of straight range. Fading may also be caused.
The distance traveled by the direct ray in the troposphere from transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna and the field strength of this direct ray at the receiving antenna. If the reflection at earth is prefect, the magnitude of the field strength due to ground reflected ray will be approximately equal since the total distance traveled by the indirect ray is approximately equal to the distance traveled by the ray. However the reflection co-efficient at the ground is p then the magnitude of the indirect ray is equal. The direct ray and the ground reflected ray combine vector ally at the receiving antenna. The phase difference in the two field strength is caused by the following two factors, path difference and phase shift caused due to reflection from ground. We revel, some important properties of the propagation of very high frequency. The field frequency strength increases linearly with the height of the transmitting antenna, linearly with the height of receiving antenna, linearly with the square root of the effectively radiated power. The field strength varies with the wave length and inversely with the square of the distance. In all we can say earths curvature has many effects on troposphere propagation.
Engineering in electronics and telecommunication has always been one of the most popular disciplines of engineering amongst students as well as various industries. The demand for electronic products has grown tenfold in the last couple of decades due to the importance of different gadgets in our daily lives. Electronics engineering technology mainly deals with components such as diodes, transistors, integrated circuits which are used to design various electronic systems and devices. The principles of electronics and telecommunication engineering is closely related to that of other disciplines such as computer engineering, electrical engineering, systems engineering, instrumentation and robotics.
A number of different industries and organizations utilize electronics engineering principles in their products and services. These companies either perform research work pertaining to electronics engineering technology or create new electronic gadgets or instruments. Telecommunications engineering is the most closely related sub-field of electronics and it consists of transmission of data or information with the help of various media such as cables or air. The transmitters and receivers required for telecommunication are created with the help of standard electronics methods and technologies.
The usage of electronics does not merely cater to the world of technology. Several industries such as hospitals, chemical manufacturing, home appliances, satellite communication, weather forecasting, etc, rely on electronics engineering for their basic as well as important tasks. For this reason, students pursuing a degree in electronics engineering should diversify their talents so that it can be utilized in several fields and make them more versatile. They should possess good analytical and problem-solving skills and should be able to think out of the box while dealing with difficult situations. They should also keep themselves updated with the latest changes in technology due to the fast growing nature of the field as well as the constant enhancement of existing electronics engineering principles.
As it is a popular sub-field of engineering, electronics and telecommunication engineering is available at most universities in India with an almost similar course content. Pune, being the hub of education in the country, has a number of colleges where students can pursue this course. One of the major colleges in Pune to offer a Bachelor’s degree in electronics and telecommunication engineering technology is ISB&M School of Technology. This college is located in the suburbs of the city and is one of the premier institutes for studying various sub-disciplines of engineering. Along with an excellent faculty and world class facilities, a great placement record is one of the hallmarks of this institute.
A great number of reference materials such as books, journals, multimedia content and state-of-the-art laboratories are available at ISB&M School of Technology which enables students to enhance their knowledge and prepare them for their careers in this field. The faculty members for this course are well qualified and have conducted seminars on the subject at various events across the country. They have a great track record when it comes to campus placements and some of their students have secured jobs with the best companies in the industry in the past. These factors along with a campus that is located in scenic surroundings and a serene environment make ISB&M School of Technology a wonderful place to pursue a degree course in electronics engineering.
If you want to possess great revenue in a quicker timeline, reselling wholesale electronics gadgets from reselling organizations may be the right Business suitable for you. But first, you should identify which inturn electronic products will market fast in buy to possess in short periods of time and superb earnings.
Whenever you invest in your items from dropship distributors, these are bought at very low price. Therefore, the owner may add approximately the retail price to really make it much more competitive. However, don’t expect the prices to become really lower, so the main step to acquire large cash flow would be to offer several products speedily. Additionally, make sure that you possess at the least a fantastic knowledge on the product you might be reselling. A number of customers need more details as well as recommendation prior to you buying a certain item.
Besides this, review your pricing if they’re ambitious adequate. Your purchasers must get your provide the Best offer to decide on. Check on the items you’re selling; be sure that these are in good condition and high quality. If cameras are in demand at a certain period, keep in mind who have them readily available. Do not be left out; usually remodel your products and rates. Be as tough as possible.
One very good origin of wholesale electronics gadgets is DHgate.com. It’s one of the biggest online vendors for wholesale electronics gadgets along with other innovative items. It offers you a latest approach to acquire great Chinese products at wholesale prices on the web. It’s started with the sole purpose of rendering good quality merchandise at a reasonable cost that will help you stand above your rivals with the daily changing developments of digital goods. It can be straightforward for you to review any kind of of the merchandise by providing 1 piece orders at a wholesale cost then lowering the pricing per item much more for volume purchases. In all of the of the instances, you can find products on DHgate a lot less expensive as opposed to retail prices at any local market. DHgate wholesale electronics gadgets give a one-stop shop for your Electronic gadgets wants. DHgate supply savings about bat roosting who place large orders.
Purchasing wholesale electronics gadgets is one of the Best online businesses one may enter into. This is a sought after Business which you could obtain a considerable income from if you choose your merchandise nicely. Nonetheless, usually do not expect to gain a big profit in an instantaneous. You will need to work hard to earn a lot more as well. Make sure which you could obtain the very best and most reasonable value in order each and every single child acquire outstanding income.
Refurbished Electronics offer great savings. However, they come with a shorter warranty. New electronics can be very expensive; but they come with a longer warranty. It really comes down to your personal preference.
Refurbished electronics advantages are too numerous to list in this single article. The price difference between new electronics and refurbished ones is probably the most important of all the advantages of refurbished electronics. However refurbished products do have their disadvantages also. -There is no benefit without cost and there is no cost without benefit.- We do not know who made this statement; but we know it has to do with economics.
This economics principle stands true when it comes to refurbished electronics advantages and disadvantages. Should you buy brand new electronics or refurbished electronics? Obviously, that is a question only you can answer.
In spite of the great price benefit that comes with buying refurbished electronics, some people still prefer to buy brand new even if that means more debt. Others would prefer to save the money and buy only refurbished electronics. It is all a matter of personal preference and opportunity costs. The best we can do is to point out some of refurbished electronics advantages and disadvantages. Refurbished Electronics: Advantages and Disadvantages
1. Refurbished electronics can be up to 80% cheaper than new ones. For example, a refurbished Samsung HP-R4252, 42- Plasma HDTV with turner and all the bells and whistles costs about $750.00. A new one costs about $3,200.00. That is a 76% off from the original price.Clearly these are some great refurbished electronics advantages.
2. If you were to add $249.99 for a 3 year extended warranty onto the already discounted price ; you would pay roughly one-third (1/3) of the original price. That is, [($750.00 + 249.99)/ $3,200.00]X100= 31%, roughly 1/3 of the price.
3. Refurbished electronics sport the exact same technology as new ones.
4. Other refurbished electronics advantages come in the form of reliability. These products are rigorously tested for optimum performance. They must meet the same factory specifications as new ones.
In our opinion, there is one disadvantage with refurbished electronics – the manufacturer warranty. You only have a 90-day warranty on refurbished electronics instead of the standard 1-year warranty.
While some people may fuss about that, we believe it is a fair deal. Since the refurbished item has been thoroughly tested and met factory specifications, nine months worth of warranty is served through the refurbishing process.
However, if you insist on having a longer warranty you can buy an extended warranty for 3 to 5 years ranging in price form $30.00 to $150.00 and up respectively. Note that even with the added extended warranty you still save a boatload of money.
So, buying refurbished electronics give you the opportunity to own a high end, late model electronic gadget without swiping away your life savings. Way to go! Buy refurbished electronics!
New Electronics: Advantages and Disadvantages
There is only one advantage in buying brand new electronics – The warranty. Unlike refurbished electronics, new items are sold with a 1-year warranty. You can buy a refurbished electronic, then buy an extended warranty for the peace of mind. You will still have a better deal.
The one year warranty that comes with the new item makes perfect sense. Manufacturers do not test every new product. They simply test a sample from a batch.
If the percentage of successful tests satisfied a pre-set standard; they assume that all products from the batch will work. The truth is there is no guarantee they will. That is why they give a full year warranty on them.
New items are only randomly tested. So they are susceptible to breaking down. For this reason, a longer warranty is offered on it. It is clear that refurbished electronics advantages outweigh new electronics advantages.
Our advice is simple; you don’t need to work your life away for a one year warranty. You can enjoy a greater peace of mind if you buy an extended warranty on refurbished electronics. Just remember:
Refurbished electronics are tech
Shopping in pawnshops that buy electronics is starting to become popular. The economy nowadays calls for finding ways to save money as much as possible. Using coupons, buying only during sale are some ways to scrimp on money. And now, shopping in pawnshops is becoming a lot more popular.
Because people are willing to purchase items at pawnshops, pawnshops are keen on acquiring electronics from customers. Common pawned items electronics are television, computer, iPods, DVD players, PSP, mobile phone, digital cameras as well as other game consoles. When pawning these items, bring all the accessories and also the remote controls and chargers. Bring all things that are included in the box. Pawnshop means quick loans. It is very convenient; pawnshop owners and their staff are very friendly and helpful. Besides electronics, pawnshops also buy gold, silver, diamonds, artwork as well as jewelry. Some people even pawn their gold teeth. Gold always gets a high loan value.
Don’t be afraid when dealing with pawnshops. The good thing about pawnshops is they won’t sue you if you fail to pay off your loan. You do not have to worry about collection agencies pestering you in your homes or in workplace. Pawnshop loans are nearly all state-regulated, and ‘finance charges’ may vary from 4 % monthly to 25 % monthly. Some states charge an additional service charge per month. In a number of states, the maximum interest rate is 4 % monthly, and a service charge is up to $10. Do not hesitate to ask the pawnshop if there are terms that you do not understand. Have them explain all of terms with you. You should be able to understand and accept all the fees in the pawn ticket. Pawnshops are regulated by federal laws. Check the website of your state to make sure you’re covered and protected in all your transactions.
If you want to get back your pawned item, make sure to keep your pawn ticket. The pawn ticket contains the maturity date, the item description, interest rate and other terms of the loan. You would not want to pay extra money for a lost ticket. Keep it in a safe place. Note the due date of your loan. Better to mark it on your calendar. If you have the money days before the due date, do not wait until the last day of claiming your item, pay back your loan as soon as possible. You will also save on interest rate by doing so. If it is a family heirloom, the more you need to be mindful of your loan details.
Even though you think that your item has a high value, you might not get the expected loan amount. This is because the pawnshop takes into consideration different factors when computing for the loan amount. After all, pawnshop is a business just like every other establishment. They also need to protect themselves. If there is a surplus of similar items in the pawnshop, it may lower the loan amount because they will have a difficulty disposing the items. The usual loan period is 120 days. Some pawnshops loan about a third of the amount they think they’ll get when they sell it.
Owners of pawnshops that buy electronics hire well trained staff. They keep up with the trends and the market trends. It is prerogative for them to know the resell value of the items. Those staff with years of experience are already equipped with the skill and sense of the items’ worth. Amateur staff relies on books, but experienced ones also rely on other pawnbrokers.