Month: August 2017

Electronics Audio Amplifiers

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Basic Laws Of Electronics

Thanks to the physical laws of electronics, circuit analysis is very procedural. This is the second entry in a tutorial in basic electronics. The first entry covered basic electronic concepts such as voltage, current, and power. This session will cover Ohm’s Law, and Kirchhoff’s Laws of voltage and current. These are the fundamental laws needed for circuit analysis and design.

Resistors and Ohm’s Law
Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist that in 1826 experimentally determined most basic laws that relate to voltage and current for a resistor.

Ohm’s law basically states that the resistance of a component (commonly a resistor) is equal to the voltage dropped over the resistor divided by the current going through it.

This law makes it relatively easy to find one of three values: voltage across a resistance, the resistance value itself, or the current flowing through the resistance (as long as the other two values are known).

Nodes, Branches, and Loops
These three concepts must be understood for basic circuit analysis. They help determine if components are in series or parallel and if the components share the same current or have the same voltage drops.

A branch represents a single circuit component such as a resistor or voltage source.

A node is a point where two or more branches connect.

A loop is any closed path in a circuit.

Elements are in series if they exclusively share a single node. Elements that are in series share the same current.

Elements are in parallel if they are connected to the same two nodes. Elements in parallel have the same voltage across them.

Kirchhoff’s Laws
The first of Kirchhoff’s Laws is Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). This law states that the sum of all current entering a node or enclosed area of a circuit is equal to zero. Simply put, current entering a node or area equals the current leaving the node or area.

The second of Kirchhoff’s Laws is Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). This law states that the sum of all voltages around a closed path or loop is equal to zero. Simply put, the sum of voltage drops equals the sum of voltage rises.

This is found by following the loop in one direction (the direction does not matter). If the positive terminal is hit first, the voltage is added. If the negative terminal is hit first, the voltage is subtracted. Together these values will equal zero.

Once all of the voltages are found, we can start the loop anywhere we want. I find it convenient to start at the negative terminal of a main voltage source. Since we hit a negative terminal first, we subtract it. Now we simply finish the loop and add the voltages together.

This law comes in very handy for analysis.

Basic DC Analysis
By combining Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws, basic DC circuits are relatively easy to analyze. Knowing that all voltages in a loop add up to zero and all currents entering a node, minus currents leaving a node also equals zero, most current and voltage values can be easily obtained.

If a loop contains one voltage source and multiple resistances, voltage division (eq. 1) should be used to find the value of voltage drops across the known resistances. Once the voltage across the known resistance is found, Ohm’s law (eq. 2) can be used to determine the current flowing through the resistance.

Eq.1 Voltage Division:
((voltage source in volts) (resistor of interest in ohms))/(sum of resistance in loop)

Eq.2 Ohm’s Law:
(voltage across a resistance) = (known resistance)(current flowing through resistance)

Keep in mind that resistors in series can be added to give total resistance between two nodes. The total resistance between two nodes that have resistors in parallel is found using eq. 3 below.

Eq. 3 Equivalent Resistance (Req) of Resistors in parallel:
Req = ((resistance in branch 1)(resistance in branch 2)) / (sum of resistances in both branches)

There is much more to be said about DC circuit analysis but most would go beyond the scope of this article. The purpose of this article is to give a basic understanding of the laws and concepts of basic electronics.

Other concepts that make DC circuit analysis easier are current division, mesh analysis, and nodal analysis. These techniques use the rules behind KVL, KCL, and Ohm’s Law but would require a visual example for thorough explanation.

I hope that this short tutorial has been helpful to anyone who is new to the world of electronics either as a hobbyist or as a technician trying to learn electronics repair.

What Are The Advantages Of Using Electronic Tilt Sensors In Off-road Vehicles

Off-road vehicles are designed to perform the most difficult tasks in often in the most extreme outdoor conditions. In industries like construction, forestry and agriculture, vehicles often have to navigate on uneven surfaces and slippery terrain whilst lifting and manoeuvring heavy and uneven loads. This can present difficult challenges for the drivers of these vehicles: for many vehicle operators, the chances of tipping or rolling the vehicle over are high, so obviously safety is a paramount concern. However, electronic sensing technology is now available which makes the vehicle drivers job easier and safer. As these electronic sensors can detect the vehicles operating condition and alignment, the safety of the operator is greatly increased.

Tilt Sensors Monitor the Safe Horizontal Alignment of Vehicles
Off-road vehicles often have to work in extreme conditions, where rugged terrain and heavy moving machine parts can quickly shift the balance of a vehicle. A shift in the dynamics of the vehicle or an uneven transfer of weight or dangerous alignment can cause hazardous conditions for the vehicle operator. Electronic sensors can help operators to monitor the horizontal alignment of vehicles. Tilt sensors can precisely detect even the slightest angle variation. Tilt sensors can give the driver accurate information about the exact road-grade angle, the boom angle, the platform angle and the crane-level angle. Armed with this important information, an operator can then take action to avoid a potentially disastrous situation.

Tilt sensors, however, need to sturdy and resilient. They have to be able to withstand the extreme shock, vibration, and all the harsh elements associated with outdoor use. Moreover they also have to be able to cope with direct exposure to chemicals, dirt, moisture, sunlight, and electrical interference. Therefore tilt sensors have been designed so that they are capable of resisting these elements and are able to perform in extreme environments. They are able to do so because of certain special design features like:

Compact housings rated for IP67 protection which encase and protect the electronics from chemicals and liquid ingress,
UV-resistant plastic and metal housings which prevent damage from exposure to sunlight,
Noise-immune technology which enables the sensors to ignore conducted and radiated electrical noise.
Outputs protected from short-circuits and overloads which eliminate damage during installation,
LHighly flexible cables, which are armoured to resist chemicals and perform at temperatures as low as 40 F.

Sensing technologies
There are two very different, yet highly effective sensing technologies that can be applied to verify the horizontal alignment of off-road vehicles: electrolytic tilt sensing and micro electromechanical sensing. (MEMS)

Electrolytic tilt sensing
Electrolytic tilt sensing technology can measure the tilting of a reference plane in two axes, by measuring the tilt angle with reference to the earths ground plane, using an accelerometer. At the centre of the sensors core are measuring cells surrounded by fluid or liquid. These measuring cells monitor ant change in the liquids conductivity to detect angle variations and deviations.

MEMS sensing technology
The second technology is micro electromechanical sensing (MEMS). When a vehicle lifts or tilts, the movement is transferred to the beams of the sensor that deflect to take the inertial force of the mass. The change in capacitance is proportional to the tilt of the sensor, which is ultimately then converted to a change of voltage and transferred as an analogue value to the driver of the vehicle. The use of MEMS sensors incorporating this technology are better suited to applications where a single-axis wide tilt angle (90) and lower precision (1) are needed.

Electronics Recycling With Cash Your Tech Means You’ll Always Have The Latest Device

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